The Science of Good and Evil

The Science of Good and Evil

William C. Gough and Robert L. Shacklett

Updated May 8, 2006

Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference
on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing

Santa Sabina Center, San Rafael, CA

September 3-5, 1994

Introduction

Can there ever be a science of good and evil? Certainly not under the current paradigm of modern physical science. There exists a wide gap between such human qualities as good and evil and what has been considered to date in the physical sciences. But before we begin to address what would be required to bring the qualities of good and evil under the umbrella of modern science, we will briefly describe how one of us (Bill Gough) learned the concepts of good and evil -- since initially they are learned concepts taught to us by the society in which we are immersed.

I was raised during the Great Depression. There was no television and we had no telephone or automobile. I lived in the center of Jersey City, New Jersey and acted out the concepts of good and evil on the city streets. We played war games, cops and robbers, and cowboys and Indians. We used kitchen pots for helmets, garbage can covers for shields; broom handles were horses, swords were made from orange crates, and bamboo poles became lances. And, of course, we had cap guns. We learned our general ideas about good and evil from the family, the church, and the radio. However, to play our games we needed to be taught at our level and this was done through comic books, and even more effectively for me through bubble gum cards since they told me about the "real" world.

The bubble gum cards told me that the Government is good -- they fight the public enemies, the gangsters and robbers. Overseas the Foreign Legion puts down the rebellions of the evil Arabs. Thus, I learned that the government in power and stability was good. But the good didn't always win! The Spanish civil war ends with the Fascist rebels defeating the Loyalists government. And in Africa, the Italians invade Ethiopia and the government of Haile Selassie leave as the Fascist win. Japan attacks China and many innocent people die. Why do the good suffer so? Killing the evil invaders is good. It makes no difference what race does the killing as my cards show the Moro tribesmen slaughtering the "Jap" invaders. Then came World War II. The Germans and the Russians invade Poland. This is clearly evil. But the evil doesn't always remain evil. The Nazi's remain evil but the Russians become good when they fight the Germans. (Later they become evil again; now they are good.)

We also had bubble gum cards about the American Indians. They are evil when they are attacking the wagon train with its women and children. Yet they are also good -- Pocahontas saves John Smith, and on the radio Tonto helps the Lone Ranger fight evil -- in fact Tonto always seemed a little wiser than his masked companion. There appears to be good within evil. Forty years later, my son has Star Wars cards in which Ben (Obi-Wan) Kenobi represents good and Darth Vader represents evil. But Darth Vader seems to also have some good within himself. To understand the mystery of good and evil, Ben Kenobi takes Luke aside and says "Learn about the Force!" This paper is about "the Force."

An Expanded Paradigm

Science is not cast in concrete. It is and always has been an evolving search for truth. This search has resulted in a scientific process of ever expanding paradigms with their resulting worldviews. Figure 1 represents these expanding paradigm as a set of Russian dolls -- each one encompassing the preceding one. Science has gone from a worldview in which the earth constitutes the center of the universe to our modern science worldview -- one in which the entire universe consists of a "soup bowl" full of space and time in which there are chunks of matter.

To have a science of good and evil we will need a more encompassing scientific paradigm -- one that extends beyond the limitations of space-time. In many fields of research there are "arrows" that point to the need for such an expanded science as illustrated in Figure 2. The data from these diverse fields of human endeavor will help scope such a new paradigm. As many have noted, the seeds for such an expansion have already been planted by modern physics itself -- most notably in the research on non-locality. We will first discuss a model for such an expanded paradigm and then illustrate how the concepts of good and evil arise naturally.

The Model

The model is designed to provide a basis for understanding the human experience in terms of connectiveness instead ofseparation, which is the prevailing Western paradigm. Furthermore, it is our intention to demonstrate that this connectiveness can be described in terms of conventional concepts used in physics and mathematics. Using the model we have presented the basis for an expanded scientific paradigm that encompasses the existing space-time limited paradigm of modern science. The details of this model have been covered in a series of papers (Shacklett & Gough, 1991; Gough & Shacklett, 1993a,b,c,d,e).

We start by addressing the key simplifying assumption underlying modern science. That key assumption is that physical space and time represent a closed system and, hence, only patterns originating in the physical world need be considered. Our articles have attempted to make a case for an expanded science that considers not only space-time patterns, but recognizes effects in the physical world originating from "archetypal" patterns beyond space-time.

In addition to assuming that the creation process begins beyond space-time, our model assumes that mind is also located beyond space-time. We believe that there has been sufficient scientific research to support the concept that mind can not be confined to the physical. This implies the possibility that our minds can interact with the creation process. In fact, humans appear to have an innate talent for interacting with and even adversely distorting this creation process. This may be the reason for the admonitions of the Buddhist and Taoist philosophies that one's actions should be in accord with the "flow."

Traditionally, physical science has studied the patterns of nature by assuming matter to be the starting point. Our model makes it possible to examine the nature and origin of the physical world from the opposite perspective. Matter results from a creation process originating beyond space-time, in realms where connectiveness rather than separateness dominate. Ordering principles beyond space-time that embody this connectiveness produce the archetypes from which arise the patterns of the physical world. These patterns can be classified into three types: fields that represent unmanifest form; matter that represents manifest physical form; and symbols that represent manifest mental form to which humans have assigned meaning. We believe that the mystery of why mathematics, and hence modern science, can so successfully model nature arises because the human mind can function beyond space-time and manifest meaningful symbols.

More specifically, our model assumes that the physical world is unfolding at the speed of light out of realms beyond space-time. Thus, the "weaving" of the fabric of physical reality (the patterns of matter, energy, and information) involves a continuous back and forth exchange between space-time and the higher realms. David Bohm called this process of undivided wholeness the holomovement (Bohm, 1980, p.p.150-157). To elucidate how our model addresses this process, the relationship between light, space, and time will be discussed.

Outer Light

Let us expand upon our assumption that the physical world is unfolding at the speed of light out of realms beyond space-time. We will now consider the entire physical world to be various manifestations of light. Modern physics has already found that under the right circumstances, light and matter can switch identities (Flam, 1994). In such a physical world, as David Bohm has stated, matter could be considered as "condensed or frozen light." (Weber, 1986, p.45 quoting Bohm) Hence, light becomes the manifestation of archetypes that take on physical form. This is not a new concept, having been proposed as long ago as the thirteenth century by Robert Grosseteste, the Archdeacon of Leicester, a churchman and scholar. Grosseteste wrote the book De Luce, or "On Light" in which he considered light the first form from which all else followed. To Grosseteste light was the medium chosen by God for his creation, thus, all of material creation was condensed light. (Zajonc, 1993, p.p. 52-56) In the present context, by light we mean the entire electromagnetic spectrum, not just the one octave that we experience as visible light.

To understand our basis for taking this position, we need to review what science knows about space, time, and light. The need to periodically review such basic concepts that serve as a foundation for the current paradigm of science is something that Einstein elegantly addressed:

"The eyes of the scientist are directed upon those phenomena which are accessible to observation, upon their apperception and conceptual formulation. In the attempt to achieve a conceptual formulation of the confusingly immense body of observational data, the scientist makes use of a whole arsenal of concepts which he imbibed practically with his mother's milk; and seldom if ever is he aware of the eternally problematic character of his concepts. He uses this conceptual material, or, speaking more exactly, these conceptual tools of thought, as something obviously, immutably given; something having an objective value of truth which is hardly ever, and in any case not seriously, to be doubted. How could he do otherwise? How would the ascent of a mountain be possible, if the use of hands, legs, and tools had to be sanctioned step by step on the basis of the science of mechanics? And yet in the interests of science it is necessary over and over again to engage in the critique of these fundamental concepts, in order that we may not unconsciously be ruled by them." (Einstein forward to the 1st edition (1953) of Jammer, 1969)

Space-time is the foundation upon which modern science has built its impressive structures. However, this foundation is not rock but sand. In fact, space and time lose their meaning when one imagines traveling at the speed of light, which is what Einstein did when he started thinking about relativity theory. The deeper meaning of both space and time have remained unsolved mysteries for modern science (Jammer, 1969; Morris, 1984; Shallis, 1982). Our model challenges this foundation of space-time and suggests that we go deeper to bed rock so that we can build an expanded paradigm for science (Gough & Shacklett, 1993e).

Intimately associated with the scientific concept of space-time is our understanding of light. Yet, to the scientific mysteries of space and time we must add this even greater mystery -- what is light? The nature of light cannot be reduced to matter or its motions; it is its own thing. In fact, light is the tool by which we have gained almost all the knowledge we have about our universe. (Ball, 1994) Neither of the great pillars of modern science, the theory of relativity or quantum theory, reveal anything about the fundamental nature of light. Yet, all of modern scientific theory rests upon a foundation based upon an observed property of light -- the fact that light always travels the path that minimizes the time it takes to go from one place to another. This observation has been generalized into the famous "principle of least action" (Feynman, 1963).

If we cannot assign specific attributes to an object then the object loses its identity -- its individuality. A photon of light was the first object subjected to this test. Since the photon has no mass or charge, light could be quantified by four other attributes: polarization, wavelength, direction, and intensity. However, science is now facing a dilemma. For each of these four attributes, careful experiments in quantum optics have shown that "there is no truly unambiguous attribute of Light!" (Zajonc, 1993, p.314).

The photon interference experiments that gave these startling results have now been performed with what we traditionally call matter, i.e., electrons, other atomic particles, and even atoms. These "matter" experiments are showing that the quantum effects do not always diminish with increased numbers of particles. Thus, at a deep level the "individuality" disappears and a connectiveness or oneness appears. Hence, the whole basis of scientific thought that assumes that our physical reality is built upon well defined individual attributes of matter now seems questionable. We are suggesting that the science of individuality be replaced by a "science of connectiveness" -- a connectiveness that emanates from beyond space-time.

We have chosen the twistor geometry as the mathematical basis for our model (Peat, 1988; Ward & Wells, 1990). An important aspect from twistor geometry is the term "null line." In space-time it refers to a ray of light, with the "null" coming from the fact that at the speed of light, time and distance intervals go to zero. This implies that along a null line, time and space have no meaning -- the essence of non-locality. The twistor concept, therefore, is a symbolic way of representing the creation of the physical world of space-time via light rays.

The Link to the Physical

Our model provides a mechanism for the introduction of structure into the quantum vacuum of space-time. This process originates from beyond space-time in the realm of archetypes (which contain the incipient patterns and forms of the physical world) that lies next to the Planck length. The driving force behind this process has been called consciousness. It represents the universal intelligence that uses these archetypal patterns to modulate the light as it emerges into space-time and condenses or "freezes" into matter.

The electromagnetic spectrum (what we have called light) is normally represented as an open ended range of frequencies covering what scientific instruments have measured. To justify our extension of this frequency range, note that physics has identified four basic interactions: electromagnetism, strong, weak and gravity, and has been moving toward a unification of these forces. The first three of these are now understood as aspects of a single force. Broadly speaking, this force can be considered as an expanded version of electromagnetism. Even gravity, the maverick force, may eventually be brought into this fold (Puthoff, 1989; Sakaroff, 1968).

It is because of these unifying principles that we believe the physical realm is a manifestation of vibrations that span wavelengths from the Planck length to "infinity". Of course, an infinite wavelength implies zero vibration or absolute stillness, which is impossible because of the Planck-length vibrations inherent in the wholeness. Figure 3 is a representation of an expanded EM spectrum that provides the basis for the manifestation of the physical realm interfacing with the knowledge realm beyond space-time.

Choice and Magnetism

In order to understand life processes we will be concerned here with more than chemical reactions, which have been understood in detail through the powerful tool of quantum mechanics. We need to understand how the mind, which we locate in the knowledge realm beyond space-time, can affect the physics and chemistry of our bodies and how a concept like choice can be integrated into physical science.

A number of articles (Levin, 1993, p.p.77-85; Becker, 1992, p.p.53-72; Green, et. al., 1992, p.p.65-103; Maxey, 1991, p.p.55-72) have dealt with experimental evidence pointing to the intimate connection of the magnetic part of the electromagnetic field to life processes. The obvious question at this point is, what characteristic of a living system appears most closely related to magnetism? The answer is its informational aspect, i.e., a living system's ability to make choices. This answer forces the next obvious question: what does choice have to do with magnetism? The question of choice (or free will) is one of the fundamental issues in the nature of consciousness that many scientists and philosophers have struggled with. Our model may be able to shed some light on this age-old problem. Consider the following sequence of arguments:

1. Choice can be reduced to a binary, left-right or yes-no type of process. A binary process is familiar to us; it is the basis for the information in our computers and music on our CD's. In the physical world, the smallest possible increment of binary change is Planck's quantum of action, and this amount of change (or larger) can be brought about through an alteration of the constraints that determine the energy flow for a particular process. That is, a choice modifies a least action path in an organism.

2. Therefore, a physical or chemical process is altered when a choice is made. The more immediate consequences of choice are changes in the quantum states of atoms and molecules which then influence their chemistry. Tiny currents arising from the dynamics of electron spin and orbital motion exert magnetic forces on each other and are also influenced by external magnetic fields. Because of their quantum structure, some molecular systems can be flipped into different spin states by extremely small magnetic disturbances (Fano & Fano, 1959). A change in the spin "direction" represents a means for encoding information into the physical system.

3. So now the question becomes, how do such magnetic changes couple in from the mental realm? Dirac's quantum theory of the electron shows that magnetism (specifically, the "vector potential") affects the phase of the electron's quantum wave function. Under certain conditions this phase alteration can affect the electron's location and thus the atomic and molecular structures of which it is a part. The twistor formulation provides for a "fiber connection" between the particle and higher dimensional abstract spaces (Gough & Shacklett, 1993d). Our model views these mathematical abstract spaces as symbolic representations of the knowledge realm beyond space-time. Since the knowledge realm includes the mind or mental realm, we can connect these abstract spaces ultimately to conscious thought processes.

To summarize: human choice (a conscious act in the mental realm) alters the constraints on chemical processes in the physical realm. The informational content of the system is changed. The diagram below, based upon our model, shows the intermediate steps.

Mental Realm (choice)

Groups
Fiber bundles
Twister space
Penrose transform
EM field
Particles
Chemistry

Physical Realm (behavior change)

We propose that intention is focussed choice, i.e., intention uses the same mechanisms involved in choice except they are amplified quantitatively. Figure 4 illustrates how the process of altering constraints works.

Quantum theory imposes a lower limit on "choice" by "quantizing" action (Young, 1976). Therefore, if choice cannot be broken down into smaller units, the quantum of action may represent some kind of fundamental act of consciousnesscomparable to a basic "left-right" or "yes-no" decision. Support for such a position comes from the work and experiments of Dr. L. Mandel at the University of Rochester. Mandel describes experiments in which the result (a light beam interference effect) is influenced by the possibility that the experimentalist could take actions, even if he doesn't take these actions (Mandel, 1991). Thus, these data indicate that mental acts can influence future events. This research challenges the prevalent view of physics in which events are based on what is rather that what could be.

Perception of Reality

Perception is about sensory qualities, not the quantities expressed by physicists. This can be illustrated by the research of Edwin Land (inventor of the Polaroid camera) who in 1957 challenged the very foundations of contemporary color theory. Land did experiments in which the colors seen by a person just could not be there according to traditional physics. The importance of input from the mental level could no longer be denied. "Our every perception is literally colored by contexts, prior experience, indeed, by every aspect of our inner world. These are all active in producing color." (Zajonc, 1993, pp 191, 198-99)

The model being proposed assumes that everyday reality is not simply out there nor is it within. Rather, we suggest it is a perception we construct from aspects of the unity within which we are immersed. Science has demonstrated that in the world described by quantum theory, human perception when limited to the five senses is not an adequate tool for explaining this universe. What our experience gives us is the "illusion" of direct, unmediated access to the external world. Cognitive science has demonstrated conclusively that there is no way for a human to "sense" or experience the physical world directly. What seems to be our experience of an objective exterior world is in fact a subjective picture that we construct. (Rivlin & Gravelle, 1984; Bolles, 1991)

Human experience can be compared to a motion picture. We are continually interacting via both our physical behavior and thought patterns with the whole, thereby altering, however slightly, the next "frame." Our mind is subtly and usually unconsciously active in each of our five senses, constantly forming and re-forming the world we perceive. Everything we have previously seen or experienced affects what we presently see or experience (Shepard, 1990). We must accept the fact, that not only every individual, but every age and culture has crafted its own sensory reality. However, unlike ancient societies, most of the time we don't recognize that patterns/symbols can originate from the archetypal realm.

The model implies that our experience of everyday reality depends upon both the current physical world inputs and quantum linkages to the archetypal patterns of the mental and higher realms -- linkages that have been constructed over time. Whatever our current reality is and whatever meaning we attribute to it can be altered by changing the focus of our intention and attention -- therefore changing our life.

Love -- A Least Action Process

The importance of focusing our intention on heart felt love and the impact it has upon the functioning of our bodies was discussed last year in our paper on "Science and Symbols" (Gough & Shacklett, 1993b, p. 25). We will repeat and expand upon this concept since love is an essential aspect for understanding a science of good and evil. In the ancient wisdom, there were three key centers in the physical body: the brain, the heart, and the generative system. Unlike Western society, to the ancients the patterns of the heart were considered the most important. "The secret doctrine declares that every part and member of the body is epitomized in the brain, in turn, that all that is in the brain is epitomized in the heart" (Hall, 1988). The heart was considered the spiritual center, having a direct effect on the rest of the body. Such a position is reflected in the scriptures of many religions: "The heart of the wise teaches his mouth, and adds learning to his lips" (Holy Bible, Proverbs 16:23); "Out of compassion for them, I, dwelling in their hearts, destroy with the shining lamp of knowledge the darkness born of ignorance" (Bhagavad-gita, 10:11).

Although there has been relatively little scientific research to uphold this position, some recent experiments that include an electrocardiogram (ECG) of the heart have been suggestive (McCraty, et. al. 1993; Tiller, et. al., 1994). The normally scattered and incoherent power spectrum of the ECG was observed to become dramatically ordered and coherent when a person experiences deep feelings of love, care, or appreciation. Hence, the deep feelings of love may create patterns in our bodies that connect us to an archetypal ordering principle beyond the mental realm. When this connection is invoked, an organizing essence or intelligence capable of restructuring the least action paths may be activated and thereby change the energy patterns of the system. Through the removal of constraints, this process could restore balance or bring greater harmony with a more encompassing whole.

The process by which this is accomplished in our physical body would have to be observable in space-time. Since the heart produces by far the strongest electromagnetic field in the body, all cells in the body exist in, and therefore could be affected by, this coherent electromagnetic field pattern and experience a physical force. This would lend support to the statement by the well known mystic Alice Bailey that "The soul, seated in the heart, is --- the central nucleus of positive energy by means of which all the atoms of the body are held in their right place and subordinated to the 'will-to-be' of the soul" (Bailey, 1979). Hence, the close linkage between love-symbolism and heart-symbolism may exist because the love experience represents a force which urges the lover towards a given center of a more encompassing unity (Cirlot, 1971).

Good and Evil

In terms of system dynamics, we may thus consider love as a state of being that creates a balance or coherence with the dynamic force of consciousness, i.e., the dynamic of change emanating from the more encompassing realms beyond space-time. This force embodies the intelligence of the knowledge realm and has been called the life force, or the God force. Hence, when one generates thoughts and emotions of sincere love, these inner symbols appear to create a resonant pattern that places one in contact with the knowledge of a universal wholeness.

Good could be defined as love in action -- creating balance with the "force." In our model the human mind resides beyond space-time and is linked to and directly affects the patterns of the body. A marvel of the human brain is its ability to rapidly change its inner patterns as it interacts with the force of consciousness. This flexibility enables us to either remain in balance with the creative "force" or not, through our choice and free will. It is the feedback from this process -- the positive synchronicities or the stress, illness, etc. -- that helps us learn, and steer our ship of life.

Our model implies that imbalance can exist in realms other than the physical. For example, such imbalance for an individual's spirit is known as "karma" -- a restoring drive requiring acts to reestablish balance. Karma represents a natural law of cause and effect that operates from beyond space-time. It's power does not disappear until it is resolved. Karma has been considered the driving force behind rebirth in the physical and the cause of events that are often assumed to be "by chance" (Rinpoche, 1993). Since karma is a cause and effect mechanism not bound by the constraints of physical time, what appears to be good or in balance within the physical realm could be out of balance when considered from the perspective of the more encompassing realms.

Thus, good at a deep level can be learned only to a limited extent from others. Rather, to truly understand such a concept one must establish a personal coupling to the knowledge realm and obtain a knowing of the intelligence emanating from the creative force. With this inner knowing one's personal constraints, represented by ones's belief systems, can be modified in ways that bring one into balance with a more encompassing wholeness. The result of shifting from the separativeness of the physical realm to the connectiveness of the knowledge realm can be dramatic as the cartoon in Figure 5 illustrates. One's greatest friend in this process is fear since fear represents a physical feedback signal upon reaching one's constraint barriers. Recall how the shaman often uses fear to alter the belief system of an apprentice.

Evil can be considered a force resulting from an imbalance. Evil is thus the result of ignorance, i.e., ignorance of what is required to remain in balance with the creative force. In some cultures they say there is no evil, everything is as it should be. In one sense this is also correct, since evil can be considered as the restoring force necessary to reestablish balance.

Good and evil have implications regarding one's thoughts and feelings since these affect the creative process. Since imbalance can exist in realms above the physical, focusing one's thoughts and feelings upon the spectrum of hate, hostility and strong aversion can manifest imbalance into one's physical body and life. The opposite effect is produced by focusing one's intentions upon love, compassion and appreciation, as the research data is clearly showing (McCraty, Tiller).

Summary

In summary, our model addresses the formation and creation of the physical world and how dynamic change is introduced from realms beyond space-time. Light and the electromagnetic spectrum are shown to be the underlying base for the structural patterns of the physical world. Choice and intention are related to the physical parameters of magnetic field and spin. This ability to alter patterns and hence information in a two-way "feedback" manner is seen as a critical factor in the intervention of consciousness into the physical realm. They relate directly to our ability to alter both ourselves and the world around us.

This expanded science recognizes 1) the unifying power of the pattern/symbol, and 2) mind and spirit as different, but not separate from, the physical. Mathematical concepts already exist for the physics of this expanded science. We therefore outlined a conceptual model which illustrates that the realms beyond space-time and matter can be united using connecting elements taken from conventional mathematical physics. An important factor in the model is the argument that space-time is not an impermeable barrier which confines human experience to the world of matter and that mind is located beyond space-time.

All models are simplifying suggestions or proposals on how to think about something that is more complicated. We have used the model to think about phenomena at the human level -- to understand how we perceive "reality" and the role that the body/brain plays in connecting us to the appropriate patterns beyond space-time. The mental or archetypal patterns that form the basis of our belief systems and habitual thinking are thereby causative factors for the set of real physical constraints that govern the electrochemistry of the body. We now have a scientific model which illustrates how the physics of our outer world becomes the feelings of our inner world and visa versa. Thus, we have the basis for including good and evil under this expanded scientific paradigm -- a paradigm that can encompass inner experience.

Conclusion

We started this paper by discussing how a child learns about the concepts of good and evil and the many confusing signals that are received in our society. As one matures the learning about good and evil must be supplanted by a knowing about good and evil. A knowing that arises from an individual's coupling to a universal wholeness. A coupling that permits one to remain in balance with the changes emanating from that wholeness.

The strengthening of that coupling is achieved by a free will choice to focus one's intentions upon heart felt appreciation, compassion and love. The result is a change not only in one's life but in the lives of others. Fortunately there exists a universal feedback process to teach us when to shift from intellectual learning to inner knowing.

The feedback signals can be observed as symptom of stress in an individual, society, and nature. Such stress manifests as dis-ease in individuals and as "evil" for the overall society. The principle cause behind such stress resides in our belief systems -- the constraints that operate upon our thoughts and hence upon our free will choices. Choices that are contributing to the creation of physical reality. The cure is to restore balance with the larger whole -- a whole that encompasses more than the physical realm. The medicine required, as many of the ancient wisdoms have taught, is sincere love and compassion.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Robert Bourdeaux (8510 Brink Rd., Gaithersburg, MD 20882) for his artistic contribution to the creation of the artwork used in this paper. Some portions of the paper parallel material published in the copyrighted journal Subtle Energies and have appeared in the article "The Science of Connectiveness: Part III: The Human Experience (Gough and Shacklett, 1993e). They are being republished with the kind permission of the International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, Golden, CO 80401.

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CAPTIONS FOR FIGURES

Figure 1. The series of "Russian dolls" shows how paradigms arising from scientific thinking have evolved to encompass larger and larger perspectives. The nesting of the Russian dolls illustrates that the paradigms that have previously demonstrated a high degree of success will be included within a new, more encompassing paradigm. The last "doll" in the series represents an undefined new paradigm, one which the authors believe will include the current science of separateness and encompass it into a science of connectiveness.

Figure 2. This cartoon illustrates the accumulating evidence that points to the need for an expanded scientific paradigm and the inherent resistance that will be encountered in the process of change.

Figure 3. A representation of the physical realm as a spectrum of vibrations ranging in wavelength from the Planck length to the size of the universe. This vibrational spectrum can be considered as an expanded EM spectrum. It is the vibrations emerging from the knowledge realm that create space, time, and matter.

Figure 4. An illustration of how the life process relates to intention and constraints as implied by the model. The act of mental intention produces changes in one's brain/body which can often be experienced as "feelings." The target of intention can be one's self, another person, or any thing/object in the universe. The figure suggests how this non-local process can be understood in terms of standard physics concepts -- the end effect is a change in physical constraints which alter the body's chemistry.

Figure 5. The first part of this cartoon illustrates how a failure to maintain a conscious connection of the body-brain system to more encompassing realms beyond space-time results in an illusion of separateness with its accompanying lack of balance. The second part shows that when this connection is established the resulting balance leads to a more harmonious experience of oneness.